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1. Is Equalizing the Means of Livelihood a New Principle?


Former religious book have not spoken about this problem.[1]


“We ordered that the zakāt be paid as has been revealed in the Quran.”[2]

[1] “”He has set forth the solution and provided the remedy for the economic question. No religious Books of the past Prophets speak of this important human problem,” `Abdu’l-Bahā, The Promulgation of Universal Peace, p. 455.

[2] `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Ganjīniy-i ḥudūd wa aḥkām, chap. 12, p. 149.

2. Is Usury Good or Bad? Does `Abdu'l-Bahā Hate Bahā'u'llāh's Favors to the People?


We made usury legal as a favor to God’s servants.[3]


Even though usury is allowed no one is allowed to engage in such an act because I hate it.[4]

[3] “So, as a favor to [God’s] servants, we made loans with interest like all other forms of deals which people make with each-other. The profit gained [by lending] money, is now permissible, pure, and clean, because this order has been revealed from the Sky of Ordinance, so that the people of earth can be engrossed in remembering/speaking about the Beloved of the World, with utmost peace, tranquility, happiness, and pleasure,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Ganjīniy-i ḥudūd wa aḥkām, chap. 24, p. 202.

[4] “From now on do not give loans with interest to anyone because `Abdu’l-Bahā dislikes interest even though it is legitimate. Only give [loans] without interest and take no loan with interest from anybody,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Ganjīniy-i ḥudūd wa aḥkām, chap. 24, p. 204.

 3. Helping the Needy a Legal Obligation or Voluntary?


The wealthy must voluntarily help the poor.[5]


Helping the needy must be enforced by law.[6]

[5] “The wealthy must have mercy on the poor, but out of free will not by force. It is useless if force is used,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 148.

[6] “For instance, a wealthy person who has great wealth must not allow another person to remain in a state of poverty and must consider his needs so that he reaches peace. This must be enforced by law and the wealthy must give the surplus of their wealth to the needy themselves,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 135.

4. Equalization of Means of Livelihood or Paying Thousands of Tons of Gold to the UHJ?


Remedying the means of livelihood for humans is necessary.[7]


After 20 times of adultery pay 34 tons of gold to the UHJ and after 100 times, 8000 times the weight of earth.[8]

[7] `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 134.

[8] “God hath imposed a fine on every adulterer and adulteress, to be paid to the House of Justice nine mithqāls of gold, to be doubled if they should repeat the offence . . . Although the term translated here as adultery refers, in its broadest sense, to unlawful sexual intercourse between either married or unmarried individuals (see note 36 for a definition of the term), ‘Abdu’l-Bahā has specified that the punishment here prescribed is for sexual intercourse between persons who are unmarried . . . In relation to the application of the fine, Bahā’u’llāh clearly specifies that each succeeding fine is double the preceding one; thus the fine imposed increases in geometrical progression,” Bahā’u’llāh, The Kitābi Aqdas, pp. 200–202.

5. Equalization of the Means of Livelihood or Depriving Some of Any Livelihood at All?

When the Baha’i kingdom materializes thieves[9] and excommunicated individuals[10] are kicked out of the community and are deprived of means of livelihood.

[9] “Exile and imprisonment are decreed for the thief, and, on the third offence, place ye a mark upon his brow so that, thus identified, he may not be accepted in the cities of God and His countries,” Bahā’u’llāh, The Kitābi Aqdas, pp. 35–36.

[10] No one is allowed to speak or interact with these individuals.

6. Must There Be Complete Equality between All People?


There must be complete equality between all people.[11]


Complete equality is not possible in the community because people have different ranks and are from different classes.[12]

[11] “There is equality between people and complete brotherhood. Justice implies that the rights of humankind be protected and preserved and all have equal rights,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 30.

[12] “We must strive for the eternal salvation of humankind. In this respect, laws are needed so [social] classes [and differences] remain and [at the same time] the members of the community be in complete peace. Because a community is like a [military] camp that needs generals, majors, lieutenants, and privates. All members cannot be generals or privates. There must be [different] classes and different ranks are needed,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 138.

7. Has God Made Distinctions between People?


God has created people without any differences or distinctions.[13]


People have different degrees of intelligence.[14]

[13] “The God of the world created all [humans] from clay and created everyone from one element, created all from one progeny, created all in one land, and created [all] under the shadow of one sky, has created them with common emotions, and did not put any differences. He created everyone the same and gives all sustenance, nurtures all, protects all, and is kind to all. He has put no differences in any grace or mercy,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 42.

[14] “Remedying the means of livelihood for humans is necessary. [This does not] mean equality . . . Humans cannot be all the same because they are different in creation. Some have first-degree intelligence, others have medium intelligence, and others are completely deprived of it. Is it possible for someone who has very high intelligence to be equal to someone who has no intelligence at all,” `Abd al-Ḥamīd Ishrāq Khāwarī, Payām-i malakūt, p. 134


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